- FERMIONS (half integer spin)
- BOSONS (integer spin)
They are particles with a half integral spin and anti-symmetric wave functions such as protons and electrons. They carry charge and spin angular momentum. They are classified as,
Quarks are one of the two basic constituents of matter. These are of six types:- up, down, top, bottom, charm, strange. The various types of quarks combine together in a specific way to form protons and neutrons.
Proton = 2 up quarks + 1 down quark
Neutron = 1 up quark + 2 down quarks
The antiparticles of quarks are known as anti quarks. Groups of quarks are called hadrons.
Gluons helps quarks to bind together and are indirectly responsible for binding of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus.
It is the second basic constituent of matter which include the electrons and neutrino. Their respective antiparticles are known as anti leptons. They are of six types indicated below with their corresponding antiparticle.
- Electron and Positron
- Electron neutrino and Electron antineutrino
- Muon and Antimuon
- Muon neutrino and Muon antineutrino
- Tau lepton and Antitauon
- Tau neutrino and Tau antineutrino
They are particles with integral spin and symmetric wave functions such as photons. They are classified as :
- Photon (spin=1)
- W boson (spin=1)
- Z boson (spin=1)
- Gluon (spin=1)
- Graviton (spin=2, existence not confirmed)
- Higgs boson (spin=0, existence not confirmed)